Notes about kirtan

Madan Gopal Das - July 22, 2010 4:25 pm

Here are some nice thoughts about kirtan, the majority of which is practical, sensible recommendations. Some is a little reflective of Aindra's madhurya rasa interests. Overall, I think some good advice especially about the practical aspects of kirtan. I'd love to have some more devotees of SCS become expert in kirtan, incorporating GM's mood and instructions...




The following is an interview with Aindra dasa done last year for the

forthcoming book, 'Kirtan Meditations - The Mood and Technique of Bhakti Kirtan'

compiled by Dhanurdhara Swami and Akincana Krishna dasa.


Doing kirtan for Srila Prabhupada


Aindra prabhu: "When Srila Prabhupada came to Washington in 1976, we would all briefly stop at his quarters before going to the temple to greet the Deities. One morning,

somehow or other, the mrdanga was pushed into my hands and I was told to lead

the kirtan. I guess there was nobody else to do it so I was trying to play as

best as I could in a very simple way. I was walking right by Srila

Prabhupada's side when he suddenly turns to me, lifts his head in his typical,

regal way, and says with a very positive glance of approval "Jaya!" And that's

the only word he said to me in my whole Krishna conscious life.


"But that one word carried so much inspiration and potency. How did I get a

"jaya!" out of Srila Prabhupada? It was simple--I was performing harinam

sankirtan. I thus thought "why not continue to perform harinam-sankirtan, as at

the least that simple service got a 'jaya!' out of Srila Prabhupada." And

that's been my whole idea ever since.


Chanting with purity


Aindra prabhu: "Harinam-sankirtan means to loudly chant the holy name for the benefit of

others. We should seriously consider to what extent we are benefiting others,

and also to what extent we are benefiting ourselves. There is apparent kirtan

and real kirtan. Only sankirtan where the pure name is chanted is real

sankirtan. If someone is making offenses to the name, simply articulating the

syllables "Hare Krishna," that is not real sankirtan. One must thus carefully

consider the offenses to be avoided in the matter of chanting."


Can you talk about the different types of chanting?


Aindra prabhu: "There is bhukti-nama, offensive chanting, which results in material gain; there is mukti-nama, shadow chanting, which results in liberation, and there is

prema-nama, pure chanting, which results in prema-bhakti, pure love of Godhead.


"Bhukti-nama means offensive chanting. By chanting offensively, you can benefit

others only by increasing their material piety. Bhaktivinoda Thakura therefore

states that a pure devotee should not participate in kirtan led by offenders to

the holy name. Who are those offenders? Those who do kirtan for ulterior

motives--who chant for money, or to augment their sex appeal, or do it for name

and fame. Such chanting can at best result in material gratification.


"Then there is mukti-nama or namabhasa. By such chanting one not only gradually

becomes freed from all material contamination, but also liberates others from

material existence. In other words, by hearing someone's loud chanting of

namabhasa, one can attain liberation from material existence. Sounds good,

right? It's certainly better than staying bound in the material world. But by

such kirtan alone you cannot inculcate bhakti into the hearts of those who hear

that kirtan, because namabhasa kirtan is only a resemblance of the holy name

and not the pure name.


"Lord Caitanya's movement is the prema-nam-sankirtan movement. Its purpose is to

give the highest benefit, pure love of Godhead. Therefore if one actually

wants to give oneself and others the highest benefit, one must awaken pure

devotion to Radha and Krishna and for Sri Caitanya. To achieve that purpose we

have to chant purely.


"Jagadananda Pandit in Prema Vivarta thus recommends that if one wants to

elevate their chanting to the platform of the pure name, one should perform

sankirtan (as well as japa) in the association of those who are chanting the

pure name. Only then can sankirtan can give the highest benefit.


Purity is the main thing – musical style is secondary


Aindra prabhu: "The most important ingredient in kirtan is the mood in which it is done. If one is either chanting the name with offenses, or chanting for liberation, one will

not get bhakti, nor will one be able to offer it to anyone else.


"It doesn't matter whether one is accompanying the kirtan with kartalas,

mrdangas and harmonium, using a drum set, electric keyboard and bass guitar,

decorating the kirtan with flute and violin, or even just clapping one's hands.

One can chant with very melodious classical ragas, or one can sing raucous,

hellacious, heavy metal chanting to attract certain people. One can sing ten

tunes an hour or sing one tune every ten hours, sing in complex rhythmic

patterns or simple rhythmic one. One can have jumping dancing kirtan or a very

slow, contemplative kirtan. No matter what you do, no matter how you decorate

the kirtan, if such chanting is not done with pure devotion, it will never ever

inculcate bhakti into the heart of anyone."


The real question is: Are you chanting suddha-nama?


Aindra prabhu: "On the other hand, if you are chanting suddha-nama, you will get prema, the greatest need of the soul. Such chanting is real kirtan and it gives

authentic, eternal benefit, by elevating ones soul as well the souls of others.

It is real welfare work, not simply material altruism or liberation from

repeated birth and death. It is thus the work meant to help others

reconstitute their original dormant love of Godhead and uplift their soul to

the platform of real satisfaction based on unalloyed pure devotion.


"If one has the power, by the grace of suddha-nama, to do that kind of good to

others, then it doesn't matter how you decorate the kirtan with accompaniment

and skill."


The real question is then, are you doing real good for others by chanting



Aindra prtabhu: "If we are only chanting a lower stage we shouldn't perform sankirtan?


"No, I'm not saying that. But we should know that we are not actually

manifesting the real form of kirtan unless we are chanting without motive where

suddha-nama, manifests."


Raga kirtan


Aindra prtabhu: "It is also important to know the meaning of raga kirtan. In a musical sense

raga refers to appropriate melodies. The classical Indian system of ragas are

thus certainly useful in kirtan, but real raga kirtan, goes beyond just

musical consideration It is kirtan on the platform of bhava, devotion with

spontaneous feeling.


"Raga literally means attraction or affectionate attachment. In kirtan it refers

to melodies that create an attractive atmosphere to affect the heart and

increase affection. This doesn't mean that raga is just meant for making the

music attractive for us and others. It means to perform kirtan in such a way

that Krishna becomes attracted to our kirtan. It is kirtan where Krishna is

attracted to the expression of our love expressed by the atmosphere we have

generated for His pleasure.


"And that principle of attraction is expansive. When you satisfy Krishna you

satisfy the whole creation. Thus everyone is automatically pleased and

attracted by performing sankirtan solely for the pleasure of Krishna.


"Instrumentation in kirtan can thus be likened to so many zeros. Zeros, even

many zeros, have value only if one is added before them. You then get ten, a

hundred, a thousand, or even a million. Similarly musical talent in kirtan has

no value within itself, but expands exponentially in value when one, when

suddha-nama, is added before it. And without the one of suddha-nama, the mood

of offering the kirtan for the pleasure of Krishna, all the best music and

instrumentation, is simply zero.


"We should note, however, that we don't see in Govinda Lilamrta the gopis

concerned about Krishna not accepting their hundreds and millions of zeros,

their unlimited musical talent in the performance of kirtan. That is because

their kirtan is solely for his pleasure. They never thought, "Oh we better not

make the musical instrumentation too nice because we may get trapped by our own

desires to enjoy the musical vibration and then Krishna won't accept our

kirtan." Rather the gopis' used whatever complex musical and rhythmical

arrangements found in the music of Lord Brahma and the residents of the higher

planetary systems and beyond that the even more difficult musical arrangements

performed by Laksmi Narayana and the residents of Vaikuntha. But whatever

musical embellishments they used were all simply done without any tinge of

ulterior motive.


"It is said in sastra that when Krishna plays his flute it is so complex and

astounding that demigods like Lord Brahma become bewildered and Lord Siva

falls off Nandi the bull, unconscious. So we can't insist that only simple

tunes and melody satisfy Krishna. Krishna enjoys a variety of flavors, many of

which are intricate. If Krishna only enjoys simple presentations then why do

we change the dress of the Deities' dress twice a day? It is the same Krishna,

but the new dress allows us to appreciate him in a fresh way. Similarly when

we see Krishna decorated in a different ragas or tunes, the attractive

atmosphere created enhances our appreciation of the beauty of Krishna In the

form of his name. Instead of decorating him in only one dress, a red dress all

the time, we decorate him sometimes in a blue dress, or yellow dress, that

contrasts so stunningly against Krishna's black body. But then sometimes we

dress Him in a pink dress which brings out Krishna's beauty in a slightly different way. Sometimes He is dressed with simple ornamentation, and

sometimes with very complex ornamentation. The simple ornamentation makes

Krishna's bodily form look a little more complex, whereas the complex

ornamentation brings out the simple beauty and sweetness of Krishna in another

way. In the exact same way we can bring out the unique beauty of the holy name

with various decorations of ragas.


"Why is it that we offer Krishna a feast and not just khichari. Of course

Krishna was satisfied to eat Sanatana Gosvami's wheat balls without any salt,

because it was offered with devotion, but that is all he had. Do you think that

the gopis only offer khichari to Krishna every day? Why is it that Radharani

never cooks the same milk preparation twice? To entice Krishna, to add his

appetite, to enchant him, to make him think that Radharani really loves him.

So in the same way, when we make a nice feast for Krishna we offer Him so many

different varieties.


"So there is scope in Krishna consciousness for making everything first-class,

better than first-class, and offering all these hundreds and thousands of zeros

of first-class arrangements for the pleasure of Krishna. Therefore if the

kirtan arrangements are all first-class and done simply for Krishna's pleasure

without any other consideration involved, that is raga kirtan."


Does Krishna like Indian classical music the most?


Aindra prabhu: "Yes, why not, but the over riding principle is Krishna's pleasure? Govinda

Lilamrta describes that the gopis were using hundreds of ragas and they weren't

even performing the ragas according to the strict rules of time consideration.

They were performing all varieties of ragas, daytime ragas, seasonal ragas, any

type of ragas, within the course of one night's rasa lila. Not only did they

relish varieties of previously established ragas, but they mixed ragas and they

created new ragas, combined with extremely complex mrdanga playing and

extremely complex dancing. It describes how one gopi came out into the middle

of the arena and she tapped her feet once, then twice, then thrice, to prove to

the audience that her ankle bells were working, and then began to dance in such

an unprecedented way that in spite of all of her intricate footwork, her ankle

bells did not sound. Krishna and Radharani and all the sakhis exclaimed bravo,

bravo, well done! She had such so much talent, but

it was for the pleasure of Krishna and all the devotees.


"At the same time, however, when Srila Prabhupada asked a pujari to identify a

carob-peanut butter sweet on the Deity plate that he was not familiar with he

disapproved. "Do not offer it to the Deities. I have given you so many

varieties of sweets that Krishna likes to eat." So there are things that

Krishna prefers. The Indian classical raga system is something like that--a

musical system that Krishna appreciates, but that doesn't mean that Krishna

cannot appreciate new ragas beyond the old established ragas that are created

for His pleasure."


Personal Meditations


Aindra prabhu: "In both my japa meditation, and in my performance of sankirtan, I begin by

meditating on and worshiping Sri Sri Gauranga and Nityandana in Navadvipa. Then

I gradually enter through the mood and bhava of Sri Caitanya into the chanting

of the madhurya nama hare krishna maha-mantra and meditation on Radha and

Krishna. Gaura-nama is audharya-nama, the name of compassion, and Radha-Krishna

nama is madhurya-nama, sweetness personified. The audharya-nama-sankirtan can

very quickly elevate the devotees to the platform of suddha-nama- sankirtan.

And suddha-nama-sankirtan, as we have discussed before, has the power to

inculcate bhakti-sakti into the heart of the people associated with the kirtan.


"Krishna says in Bhagavad-gita "first surrender, then bhakti, or prema, comes

later." Gaura is so merciful, however, that he says without considering who

is fit and who is not fit, "Just take love of Godhead." Surrender comes later.

But how can one just take love of godhead if one doesn't take gaura-nama first?"


What is the difference between japa and kirtan?


Aindra prabhu: "There are two prominent ways that the gopis are absorbed in the services of

Radha and Krishna. One is in nikunja seva, where one serves Radha-Krishna

alone. The other is rasa-lila- dancing and singing and serving Krishna with all

the gopis.


"Similarly as all the gopis have their individual kunjas for individual personal

service, we chant nama japa in the mood of nama seva, to assist in personal

intimate service. Nama japa is thus like facilitating the meeting of Radha and

Krishna alone.


"So nama japa is a more secluded, personal affair. You may even pull your

chaddar over your face so that no one can see your emotions. Japa is your own

relationship to Radha and Krishna without the consideration that your feelings

are shared with others. One is thus free to allow the heart to flow and express

one's desperation for the eternal loving service to the holy name in a way that

one can't do in public assembly.


"However, nama japa is not simply a matter of only one's personal relationship

with Radha and Krishna. We also perform nama japa to become inspired to share

our devotion to Radha and Krishna with others in the form of nama sankirtan. In

that way japa is never a selfish affair. So japa can either be chanted for the

satisfaction of Radha and Krishna or chanted to attain the spiritual experience

necessary to have real compassion on others. In either case, the aim is never

selfish or self aggrandizing.


"As practicing devotees, it's powerful to chant nama japa in the mood of

separation – especially a type of separation called purva raga, which means the

intense, desperate anticipation to meet Radha and Krishna. The idea is that

you meditate on the types of services that you would like to do for Radha and

Krishna and pray, "When, oh, when will that day be mine?" That is purva-raga.


"Sankirtan, on the other hand, can be performed in the spirit of Krishna's rasa

lila. The rasa lila acts as an appetizer to wet Krishna's appetite for more

intimate reciprocation with his gopis. In Ujjvala nilamani, however, there is a

description that says that the rasa lila generates in Krishna a happiness that

far surpasses even the experience of His complete intimate union with Srimati

Radharani and the gopis. One may ask "How is it possible for rasa-lila to be

the highest when the culmination of all pastimes is Radha-Krishna enjoying

alone in the forests of Vrindavana? "The answer is vipralambha; it is the mood

of separation. In the rasa lila Krishna although so close is so far away as

well. He is dancing with the gopis, but not yet in his most intimate

association with them. The rasa lila is thus like the hors d'oeuvres that are

served before the meal. The meal is the real objective, but hors d'oeuvres can

often be more tantalizing, more piquant and full of rasa than th

e feast itself. In the same way the most exuberant expression of nama-bhajana

is not being alone with Krishna in japa, but in the performance of

nama-sankirtan with others.


"By nama-kirtan Krishna also sees that you are serious about sacrificing your

egocentricity for the purpose of helping others to gain access to the holy

name. An attraction thus naturally awakens within Krishna to the soul who is

performing that yajna. It induces him to relish deeper with that devotee even

more intimate, loving reciprocation in the form of nama japa In that way,

nama-sankirtan and nama japa are always inter-supportive


"Nowhere, however, it is said that nama japa is the yuga-dharma, the specific

spiritual practice for this age. The yuga-dharma is nama-sankirtan, loud

chanting for the benefit of others. And that's what brings nama seva to the

highest level.


"The yuga-dharma facilitates the proper result from the performance of all other

practices of devotional service. Therefore without performing sankirtan, one

cannot gain the highest benefit and deepest realization of the purpose of

hearing the Bhagavata, chanting nama japa, taking first-class sadhu-sanga,

worshipping the Deity, or of residing in the holy dhama. In other words, one

cannot gain the highest result from engaging in any other practice of

devotional service without spending sufficient time in the direct performance

of nama-sankirtan.


"How does one achieve the highest benefit in all devotional practices by

nama-sankirtan? When Krishna sees that someone is helping others by giving them

the opportunity to hear the holy name, then Krishna from within and from

without lifts the curtain of yogamaya from that person. He thus allows them to

see the actual nature of the Deity and to penetrate and realize the deepest

imports of the Bhagavata, the path of spontaneous devotion. And by serving

guru and Krishna on the path of raga, or at least by practicing serving them on

that path, ones understanding of Bhagavata and ones relish of the Deity

becomes even further enhanced. Then all one's practices enter the raga

dimension and helps one evolve to the plane of raganuga bhava, vraja bhava.

That is real sankirtan. That is the sankirtan of Lord Caitanya and his

associates – the relish of vraja bhava in the course of performing



"It is essential that devotees who are actually very serious about advancing in

Krishna consciousness, advancing to the perfectional stage, to come to this

position of performing raga-mayi-sankirtan, kirtan laden with spiritual

emotion. Only then can one help others awaken their deepest appreciation of the

Bhagavata and their deepest appreciation of all gifts that Srila Prabhupada and

all the acaryas have left."


Aindra's style


Aindra prabhu: "I have more or less coined the name for my style of kirtan as progressive

kirtan. Just like there is progressive rock, so I have more or less named my

way of doing kirtan as progressive kirtan. The kind of kirtan that I have been

influenced by is a northern Indian classical style called kayal. Kayal, as far

as I understand, means fantasy. I haven't gotten deeply into that style, but I

have incorporated elements of that style in my humble attempt.


"What I see about the kayal style is that it leaves room for improvisation more

so than the dhrupad style. Dhrupad style is more rigid. Dhrupad style is more

concerned with the letter of the law of musical ragas, whereas the kayal style

more or less accentuates the spirit of the law of musical ragas. In the kayal

style you may add a note to a raga, for example, for the purpose of inspiration

or generating a bhava. That kind of reflects the gopis' mixing of ragas or

creating new ragas. The basic principles of the raga remain intact, but some

extra note may be added just to enhance the flavor. In that way it tends to

enhance the beauty of a raga in some ways."


Getting devotees to chant


Aindra prabhu: "When you're leading kirtan we not only benefit people by giving them a chanceto hear, but benefit them a hundred times over by giving them a chance to

chant. In the Hari-bhakti-vilasa it said that one who is hearing is benefitted,

but one who chants is benefitted a hundred times more.


"Some devotees complain about the complexity in my style, but I think that if

you actually listen to the vast majority of my kirtan, it is quite simple if

one just pays attention. One thing I try to do is keep people on their toes,

forcing devotees who participate with me in kirtan to tune in and listen more

attentively, instead of just putting their mind on automatic.


"In the kind of kirtan that I prefer, there are many varieties of tastes being

generated, along with progressive rhythmic patterns. We'll use the mrdanga and

kartalas to change up, change over, shift gears, and bring the kirtan into new

dimensions. I try to use a variety of technical musical embellishments which I

feel enhance the attractiveness of the kirtan. My practical experience is that

putting the kirtan through changes helps to keep the devotees who are

participating in the kirtan alert. It gets them out of the automatic mode and

gets them into the thinking mode. From the thinking mode you can come to the

conscious mode. Conscious of what you are doing, conscious of how the kirtan is

developing, conscious of the mood that the kirtan leader is trying to inspire

in the hearts of the other participants, whether it is direct inner circle

participants, or outer circle public. From what I gather, many devotees take

inspiration from the style of kirtan that I have developed.


"No one said that leading a kirtan is meant to be a cakewalk. It is a sacrifice,

an austerity. It is not easy. It is difficult to have the necessary clout,

purity of purpose and intension in chanting to inspire people from within to

come forward to help. Personally I don't claim to be so powerful, or so expert,

so I have to struggle sometimes just to wake people up to get them to chant.

It's not that the tune is too complicated; it is that people are not attentive.

So sometimes you have to remind those people again and again "Prabhu, haribol!

Chant!" because they are going to get much more benefit by participating in the

responsive chanting."


Breaking down false ego


Aindra prabhu: "In the Caitanya-caritamrta in the chapter called the bheda kirtans we see a

description of how Lord Caitanya divided the devotees into various kirtan

groups. There were four kirtan groups each having two mrdanga players, and

eight kartal players, That's sixteen kartala players and six lead singers,

simultaneously singing the lead with six lead responders simultaneously



"I have incorporated that standard to a large extent in my own endeavors to

perform kirtan, largely because my voice has been destroyed due to so many

years of very intense kirtan. My voice has its limitations, but I see that as

Krishna's mercy in a few different ways.


"I can't be falsely proud about how beautiful my voice is, because it is not

anymore. I ask for others to help me sing the lead when I perform kirtan,

which helps to generate enthusiasm and bring more devotees on board. Devotees

are naturally eager to help when they see someone needs help, and they become

enthusiastic when they are part of the leadership. I may still give the impetus

to the progressive direction of the kirtan, but for the most part it is other

people who are singing more than me. So when we go up to the high parts to, as

Jayadvaita Swami would say, "kill my voice," then other devotees come and kill

their voices too. I reason that the louder the voice the more Lord Caitanya

will acknowledge our attempt to selflessly cooperate for his pleasure and

bestow his mercy on us.


"So when I do kirtan, it's not a one-man show. That checks the tendency for one

person to exploit the kirtan for personal self aggrandizement. Then even if it

is not the pure name, it helps us come a lot closer to the offenseless

platform. And others become inspired that the kirtan is selfless.


"When Lord Caitanya organized the bheda kirtans not only did he have six kirtan

leaders singing, but he had six lead kirtan responders. There is a very good

reason for that. The mass of people are not going to be so expert at picking

up what tune was just sung, but if there are expert kirtan responders singing

the correct tune, the rest of devotees will more likely be able to follow.

This is very useful."


"We're all in it together"


Aindra prabhu: "If the kirtan leader is singing without playing an instrument, or if he's

playing the harmonium, which is not a rhythmic instrument, then the mrdanga

player must tune in and pick up on where the kirtan leader wants to go with the

kirtan. The idea for the mrdanga player is to serve and enhance the mood of the

kirtan leader. Then kartals should follow the mrdanga. The mrdanga player

should not be so self centered that his mrdanga playing becomes more important

to him then the kirtan forcing the kirtan leader to surrender to whatever he is



"I have experienced that with a few different mrdanga players. They are neither

interested in, nor capable of, understanding my mood or musical preferences.

They just can't pick on what I am doing to effectively inspire and engage

others. When the mrdanga or kartal player is insensitive to what the kirtan

leader needs, then the kirtan loses direction and the leader becomes very



"That doesn't mean, however, that there is no room for self-expression, for

innovativeness, or for artistic finesse on the part of the different instrument

players, because after all, even though the kirtan leader is the person in

charge, it is not his performance alone. Sankirtan is a congregational effort.

Everyone is in it together.


"Love is always a two-way street. In real kirtan there is thus a give and take

among the performers. Sometimes the mrdanga player has a good idea, or the

kartal player has a good idea. And if it is good idea, the kirtan leader

benefits by surrendering to what the mrdanga player has to offer. There is

natural reciprocation between good kirtan performers. That's called jamming.

It's sharing inspiration with each other. That sharing brings kirtan to

another dimension of spontaneous dynamism which increases the inspiration,

enthusiasm and appreciation of each other as cooperative constituents in Lord

Caitanya's lila."


Playing with expertise and playing in tune


Aindra prabhu: "There is place for expertise. Prabhupada expressed great pleasure with

Acyutananda's mrdanga playing. At that time Acyutananda was pretty expert

compared to most of the rest of us. Prabhupada complemented him, telling him

"You are playing just like a professional." That wasn't a criticism, "what the

hell are you doing trying to play like a professional!" He was complimenting

him that "you're playing just like a professional." He was exhibiting a certain

level of competence and Prabhupada appreciated it. Not that professionalism

supersedes the principle of purity, but there is need to understand the

instrument that you are playing.


"There is also a need to tune the instrument that you are playing. I

personally demand that devotees who are playing the mrdangas understand that

the first lesson in playing any instrument is how to tune it. Just like if you

are going to play a guitar, or a sitar, the first thing you have to do before

you start playing it, is you have to tune the instrument. Similarly a mrdanga

needs to be tuned properly to have the proper vibration.


"In any musical performance you'll have soprano instruments, mid range

instruments and base instruments. The mrdanga is supposed to be a bass

instrument. That is madhura mrdanga bhaje, very low and sweet – very moving to

the heart. The professional kirtan players, sahajiya as they may be, they know

how to tune their instruments. You'll hear them playing very low, very sweet,

deep resounding mrdangas. Mrdangas constitute the bottom of the kirtan.


"Similarly, it is important to understand what it is to have a tuned pair of

kartalas. If one kartal is lower in pitch than the other kartal, if they are

not the same pitch, then it can create an awfully discordant vibration that

breaks the ear. And rather than attracting people to the kirtan, it drives them

away. Kartals constitute the high end.


"So you have bottom and high end complementing the mid range, which is the

voice. If the mrdanga is not tuned low, then the mrdanga intrudes upon the mid

range, where the voices are singing. Rather than enhancing the kirtan of the

holy name, an un-tuned mrdanga intrudes on the chanting and spoils the kirtan.


"Just like when you are coming down the street and hear a hari nama party, what

is the first thing you hear? Kartals because it has the highest range and is

automatically louder. The last thing you hear is the mrdanga. You hear kartals

the voice and finally the mrdanga.


"According to Prabhupada the mrdanga should be half the volume of the voice, and

the kartals should be half the volume of the mrdanga. So if you are going to

have four mrdanga players, you should have six men leading the kirtan. It is

not that there should be four mrdangas playing competing on the mid range,

frequencies with a single voice making it difficult for the leader to sing. So

mrdanga must be tuned very low. It then not only creates the bass frequencies

on the bottom of the kirtan and allows the mid range vocals to shine through,

but it is madhurya, very sweet and moves the heart. Most important it t allows

the holy name to shine through, which is the whole purpose of the kirtan."


Playing and singing


Aindra prabhu: "Prabhupada said that the instruments should not be played in way that one

cannot sing along with them at the same time. That's another problem.

Sometimes devotees become so absorbed in trying to play their instruments in

complicated way that they can't chant while they play. That means they haven't

learned to play them properly. If one is not competent, or if one did not

learn properly, he may know how to play intricate beats on the mrdanga, but not

how to sing at the same time -- which is a hundred times the benefit of only



"So if one is playing the mrdanga properly by following the kirtan leader and

serving the holy name and at the same time hearing, that's great. But higher

than that, better than that, is being able to play the mrdanga and sing at the

same time, at least as much as possible.


"Sometimes when the kirtan gets very heavy and it is really taking off, then the

mrdanga player may have to back out of chanting to execute the changes the

kirtan leader is putting the kirtan through. But that should be the exception,

not the rule. As a general rule, as much as possible, the mrdanga players

should also respond with chanting.


"As far as the kartal players are concerned – I have seen people playing the

kartal, or playing the gong, or playing the whompers, or playing the shakers,

or banging on instruments just for their own high, completely oblivious to the

fact that they should be chanting. And honestly speaking – that boils my



Play it the Vedic way


Aindra prabhu: "If devotees can learn how to play instruments in the Indian classical style, it

goes a long way to enhance the transcultural experience of sankirtan. If you

learn how to play the mrdanga nicely, according to a traditional mantra system,

that generates the type of vibration which takes the kirtan to another cultural

dimension. Similarly with the violin—someone may play the violin in a western

classical style, but I think for kirtan it is much better to play with an

Indian classical style. Have you ever heard ndian classical guitar playing?

It's outrageously good, tremendous. Have you ever heard Indian classical

clarinet? It's tremendous. Have you ever heard classical Indian flute? Compared

to the occidental style of flute or violin playing, the Indian classical style

is much more appropriate for kirtan. When you play those instruments in kirtan

in a western style, I think it's not as harmonious. The same can be said for

harmonium playing. Srila Prabhupada played harmonium

in an Indian classical style. He didn't use chords. It's not that the Vedic

culture doesn't lend itself to higher cultural expression than other so called

cultures of the world. The highest cultural expressions in the world are Vedic

cultural expressions. It's not like you are going to lose something by learning

how to play the instruments in accordance with the Vedic way."




Aindra prabhu: "I go by Srila Prabhupada's instruction on the matter. First Srila Prabhupada

said that the harmonium should not be played in the temple. Why did he say

that? I think it was because he didn't like harmoniums being played with

western chords.


"That becomes evident by the time he wrote the third letter on this point.

First Prabhupada said that harmoniums couldn't be played in temples, only for

festival programs. Then he said that harmonium could be played in the temple

but not during the arati. And then the third and last letter that came out,

Prabhupada tells said that harmonium can be played during an arati, but

melodiously." Melodiously means following the melody line, not hanging on

chords. Melodiously means following the way Srila Prabhupada taught us to play

harmonium. He recorded the harmonium not just that we can enjoy hearing, but

so that we can learn how to play the harmonium.


"One time Srila Prabhupada was asked "Srila Prabhupada, what kind of instruments

are there in the spiritual world?" and Prabhupada answered, "Well, there is

mrdanga, there are kartalas," and then he said, "and there is a little

harmonium." Prabhupada appreciated the harmonium enough to import it to the

spiritual world. Prabhupada himself played harmonium. And even members of the

Gaudiya Matha appreciated that Prabhupada's playing of the harmonium was very

expert. Prabhupada said that the harmonium creates a nice atmosphere.


"Therefore I learned how to play harmonium, and I use the harmonium in temple

kirtans because Prabhupada said it was okay. He gave his permission. I don't

feel that it is altogether wrong to play the harmonium. But I do feel that it

is at least somewhat wrong to allow the harmonium to play you. In other words,

if you are going to play the harmonium you should be expert enough to play the

harmonium like Srila Prabhupada, or at least according to his instructions.

Not that you can't get around on the keyboard and that forces your tune to

conform to whatever chord you find on the harmonium. Chords destroy the raga

system, or imprison it, as Vaiyasaki would say."


Advice to junior kirtan leaders


Aindra prabhu: "If someone is not expert in following in a kirtan he is actually not an expert

leader. An expert leader is expert at both leading and following. It is not

that one puts on a big show of being the kirtan leader, but when someone else

is leading, he is either disinterested in or incapable of following others.

Just like someone is expert in harmonium only by reading music, but the real

expert is one who can play just by hearing. He is one who also can follow the

tune that the other leader is singing. That is actual expertise.


"Why is it that Lord Caitanya organized so that there were six kirtan leaders?

First of all there were no microphones, so you need six kirtan leaders to be

heard. After all you have four mrdangas and sixteen pairs of kartalas to

compete with. And don't think that the mrdangas and kartals weren't played

loudly. They were played very loudly. It is described in the sastra how they

were played resounding like thunder. It is not that in Lord Caitanya's time

the kirtan was only very mellow and contemplative and soft. They didn't have

microphones so those who are not so expert can't overkill it with tone deaf

singing. Not that Lord Caitanya had to resort to that in organizing his

kirtans. Rather he had six expert kirtan leaders who were able to understand

themselves enough to go in the next phase of the kirtan, cooperating together

to sing louder enough so that the thousands of people who participated in the

kirtans could hear."


Supplementary instruments


Aindra prabhu: "Instruments are important, but we already have all the instruments we need – we have a tongue, and we have ears. So we have to remember that our performance of

nama sankirtan is primarily based on those instruments. Everything else should

be seen as supplementary, or supportive, a decoration to enhance. So then any

other instruments should actually enhance and not detract from the chanting

with the tongue and ear.


"That's why I don't allow djembes when I perform sankirtan. At one time I

allowed it, but after gaining experience as to what happens when I allow it, I

decided that definitely I shall not allow djembe to accompany my kirtan. The

djembe has its appeal perhaps because it is easier to play than a mrdanga

nicely. But the djembe is a tamasic instrument, which totally overpowers and

obliterates the beauty of the madhurya mrdanga vibration. Of course someone

could argue that Lord Caitanya didn't have a harmonium, but certainly Lord

Caitanya didn't have a djembe in his sankirtan parties. If the djembe must be

used at all, it should be used outside. But even then the tendency is for it to

overpower the mrdanga and to impede the beauty and sweetness of its vibration

to move the heart which in and of itself is a transcendental sound which moves

the heart toward Krishna.


"Personally, I don't prefer to have a bass guitar cranked up so loud that it

obliterates everything else, although it doesn't have to be cranked up so loud.

I know that when an expert plays the bass guitar it can be a little tasteful if

it is not cranked up very loud. I'm not into enhancing the kirtan with bass

guitars. In my opinion it doesn't do much for the kirtan.


"I hate accordions. The sound is weird and it brings back memories of Russian

bar music. That's why I have developed this other style of small harmoniums,

to offer an alternative to the accordion."


The main mantra


Aindra prabhu: "One thing is, I always emphasize the importance of chanting the Hare Krishna

maha-mantra. Although Prabhupada said that the Gosvamis' songs are the

extensions of the maha mantra, still more important than all of them is the

mukhya mantra, the chief mantra. So many times devotees become sidetracked

because of lack of taste for chanting the maha-mantra due to not chanting

enough. They are thinking that the kirtan is boring if you don't switch to

"Govinda Jaya Jaya", or "Radhe Radhe", or whatever jaya, jaya, jaya.

Undoubtedly Srila Prabhupada's instruction is that the main focus of the kirtan

should be the maha-mantra. Here in Vrindavana for the 24-hour kirtan we

exclusively chant the maha-mantra. That is the main and best sankirtan mantra

for this age. So even though there is Hari Haraye Namah Krishna, another way of

chanting the maha-mantra given by Lord Caitanya, still, the 16-syllable

maha-mantra mentioned in the sastra is the main mantra."


The 24-hour kirtan


Aindra prabhu: "Why akhanda-nama, 24-hour kirtan? Why? People are forced to become pious by even entering into an atmosphere where a kirtan had been performed as the

ethereal atmosphere still remains purifying. So how much more one is forced to

become pious when one walks into a place where the kirtan performance is going

on and one hears the holy name. And how much even more purifying is the place

where the holy name is being heard 24-hours a day, nonstop. When you chant

non-stop in a place the power of that place simply increases, increases and,

increases, but when the kirtan breaks, it loses power.


"The akhanda kirtan also forces people to surrender more, because they can't

just start talking about something or even stop to eat. One has to sacrifice.

There is also a greater degree of responsibility toward the other members of

the team as they are working very hard to keep hari-nama continuously manifest

in the atmosphere.


"If you are doing akhanda-nama-kirtan for years and years, the atmosphere that

has been generated by the continuous manifestation of nama becomes so powerful

that it not only purifies one from material contamination, but purifies the

egoism of the soul, bringing the soul to its original egoism, the mood of a

resident of Vrindavana."