Appearance of Sri Gadadhara Pandita

Gauravani Dasa - May 7, 2005 11:50 am

Here are some quotes from Sanga wherein Guru Maharaja mentions Sri Gadahara Pandit:


Volume II, No. 19


Q. If Lord Chaitanya is Radha and Krsna combined, where is the necessity for the appearance of Gadadhara Pandit?


A. It has been explained that Mahaprabhu is Krsna in search of the bhava of Radha. Gadadhara Pandita represents that bhava, and thus he is at the side of Mahaprabhu to assist him in his search. In this explanation Gadadhara gives his bhava to Gauranga willingly.


It has also been explained that Krsna has stolen the bhava of Radha and appears as Mahaprabhu, Radha Krsna combined. Gadadhara represents that which is left of Radha after Krsna steals her bhava. Neither Radha nor Krsna appear on the purnima (full moon), but when they combine as Mahaprabhu, this appearance in the world occurs on the Purima in Navadwipa. Gadadhara appears on the new moon and leaves the world on the same day. New moon means no moon. He also appeared in a land that is desert-like, dry and vacant in contrast to the lush Ganga basin of Navadwipa.


All of this indicates the condition of Gadadhara. He is empty. What remains in him is the bhava of Rukmini, who is Radha's expansion in Dvaraka. Thus his surface mood in Gaura lila is like that of a dakshine (right wing) gopi rather than a vama (left wing) gopi. He is submissive to the extreme. However, no one loves Gauranga more than Gadadhara. He takes much abuse from Gauranga but cannot leave him. His necessity is very great. He/she wants to get his/her bhava back from Krsna. To unite Gaura with Gadadhara is the highest ideal of Gaudiya Vaisnavism.


Volume II, No. 20


Q. You write, 'to unite Gaura with Gadadhara is the highest ideal of Gaudiya Vaisnavism.' Most devotees I know have Giri Govardhana deities, why is this? Why do so few devotees or temples in our line have Gaura-Gadadhara deities?


A. Worship of Govardhana is very popular in Vrindavan. He is easy to care for. Sridhara Maharaja recommended his worship. Mahaprabhu also established his worship. My Guru Maharaja did not institute the worship of Gaura Gadadhara in any of his temples. Sridhara Maharaja reasoned that this policy was based on his affinity for sakhya rasa, rather than madhurya rasa. Thus he established the worship of Gaura Nityananda and Krsna Balarama. Worship of Radha Krsna is also part of the sakhya rasa of the priyanarma sakhas headed by Subala. Of Subala' worship it is said:


'What service, O lucky Subala,

What is not your right?

Pacifying her, you make her return,

She who from love's quarrel has fled.

You make the forest bower bed suitable

For his games of love, and fan him,

His body wet with perspiration

When it falls onto his lover's breast.'


Thus it is reasonable to conjecture that Om Visnupada A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, who established the worship of Radha Krsna, Gaura Nitai, and Krsna Balarama so widely, was himself influenced by the bhava of a priya narma sakha, either directly, or indirectly owing to the influence of his empowerment by Nityananda Prabhu. In the case of the latter possibility, his affinity for madhurya would have been veiled to some extent.


Bhaktisiddhanta saraswati Thakura, on the other hand, did establish the worship of Gaura Gadadhara in a number of his Maths. Bhaktivinoda Thakura also personally worshipped Gaura Gadadhara.


Q. Re: the position of Candravali gopi. Why is there no sampradaya following Candravali?


A. The Vallabha sampradaya claims a connection to madhurya rasa with Candravali gopi. Vallbaha's son is considered by that tradition to be an incarnation of Canrdavali. According to Caitanya Caritamrita, Vallabha himself was connected to madhurya rasa through Gadadhara Pandita, who at that time exhibited the mood of Rukmini. Rukmini is an expansion of Candravali. At the same time, the Gaudiya sampradaya's opinion of Vallabha differs from that of the Vallabha tradition today. Rupa Goswami tells us at the end of his sections on vaidhi and raganuga sadhana bhakti in Bhaktirasamrita sindhu that there is another tradition that goes by the name maryada (vaidhi) and pusti (raganuga), and that this tradition is more or less the same as the one he is teaching.


Volume II, No. 21


Q. In your recent discussion on Gaura-Gadadhara you mentioned that Gadadhara appeared in a barren place. Where is that?


A. He appeared in Bharatpur, which at present is in the District of Murshidabad near the place of Nityananda Prabhu's appearance, Ekacakra. It is in Radhadesa, previously known as Rada on the southern side of the Ganges.


Q. Since Sri Caitanyadeva is Radha-Krsna in one person, and Sri Gadadhara is an incarnation of Srimati Radharani, is their relationship in sakhya or madhurya-rasa?


A. The worship of Gaura-Gadadhara is in madhurya-rasa. They are worshipped like Radha and Krishna. Gadadhara is Radha standing next to the Gaura Krsna who has stolen her/his bhava. She wants it back. Unite them, the divine couple Radha-Krsna/Gaura-Gadadhara. Sometimes the devotees will see them as Radha-Krsna, and sometimes as Gaura-Gadadhara. Bhaktivinoda Thakura has written an arati song for Gaura-Gadadhara describing Radha-Krsna. This is the internal reality. It is all very esoteric.


Volume II, No. 22


Q. In the last Sanga you wrote, "Gadadhara represents that which is left of Radha after Krsna steals her bhava... All of this indicates the condition of Gadadhara. He is empty. What remains in him is the bhava of Rukmini, who is Radha's expansion in Dvaraka." In Caitanya-caritamrta Anubhasya by Sarasvati Thakura, it is mentioned that the separation of Gaura-Gadadhara is considered even more important than the separation of Radha and Krsna because Radha-Krsna-lila is vivarta-vilasa, and Gaura Gadadhara lila is vyaittra-vilasa. But I am not familiar with this concept of Gadadhara's bhava, etc. Could you elaborate?


A. Caitanya-caritamrta compares Jagadananda and Gadadhara Pandita to Satyabhama and Rukmini respectively. This description is one of vama (left wing) and daksina (right wing) nayikas. Kaviraja Goswami says


gadadhara-panditera suddha gadha bhava

rukmini-devira yaiche daksina-svabhava


"Gadadhara Pandita's pure love was very deep. It was of a submissive nature like that of Rukmini." Here the words daksina svabhava mean a submissive heroine. Radha is in vama svabhava, the bhava of a dominant heroine. These terms are drawn from the rasa-sastra of Bharata, Visvanatha Kaviraja's Sahitya Darpana, Kavya Prakasa, etc. Rupa Goswami employed them in his explanation of Vedanta - 'raso vai sah.'


Otherwise, because Krsna stole the bhava of Radha and appeared with it as Gauranga we can understand that although Gadadhara represents Radha, her bhava has been stolen. She is the svayam sakti. If her Radha-bhava is removed, that which remains is what Gadadhara represents, while fastening himself to Gauranga to reclaim that Radha-bhava. This is a poetic way of speaking about Gaura-Gadadhara.


The reason that the worship of Gaura-Gadadhara is "higher," than the worship of Radha-Krsna is the pitiable condition of Gadadhara. His necessity is so great, and value is determined by necessity.